History of Nepal (from past to present)

1. Definition :
History is the record of Past Event (Peoples’ desires, efforts, achievements and failures).
  1. Pre-historical period:
Discovery of remains of elephant & rhinoceros (12 million years old) and Ramapithecus man (11 million years old) in western Nepal.
  1. Origin of Kathmandu Valley:
This was a lake in the pre-historical period, Longtime ago Mahatma Vippsaya Buddha came and chanted charms over a lotus and threw it into the lake. After six moth the lotus flowers and appeared as flame and become famous as SWAYAMBHUNATH.
  1. Beginning of Civilization:
Manjushri came from Maha China, Cut a passage through his sword, and make the Kathmandu valley habitable by draining out the water and went to worship Swoyambhu and founded a beautiful City Manjupattan. Manjushri appointed to his disciple DHARMAKARA the first king of valley.
  1. Historical Age:
In Dwapar age the Danasur started giving trouble and Krishna came to Nepal valley and killed all Danasur Dangerous. The cow herds who accompanied Krishna remained of Kathmandu valley. The cow Barhubi was giving milk in the forest near Bagmati. The sardar knows this information and excavate, later Pashupati Lingo is discovered. Later Ne sage appointed BHUKTAMAN to be the first king of this line Nepal valley at that age.
  1. The rulers of those period were as follows:
    1. First ruling dynasty-Gopal dynasty 8 kings ruled around 500 years.
    2. Second ruling dynasty-Mahisphal dynasty 3 king ruled around 150 years.
    3. Third ruling dynasty-Kirant dynasty 29-32 kings ruled around 1600 years.
Ancient Nepal
  1. Some dynasty:
This dynasty had established a principality in the west. The attacks several times in vvalley. At last king of Kirati dynasty, Gasti was defeated by Nimisha of Soma vansi. He ruled from Godawari around 205 to 305 (5 Kings)
  1. The Lichhavis: Vaisalia was their homeland. After it was destroyed by Ajatsatru, they flew away to Nepal. Supuspa was the first Lichhchhavis to enter Nepal and Jaydev I established Lichchavi rule in Nepal in around 300 A.D. Jaya Dev I was the first king of this line. He has defeated Vasker Verma of soma dynasty and established Lichchavis dynasty.
Famous Kings:
  1. Mana Dev: The first historical king of Nepal. His change Narayan inscription dated 464 A.D. gives valuable information about Lichchhavis rule. He suppressed the feudal chiefs of the east and west and also conquered Mallapuri. He minted Mananka coin and constructed Managrila the new palace for him.
  2. Ansuverma: He was not belonged to Lichhivi dynasty, the was a famous king of the period. He suppressed the powerful Guptas (Courtiers) a malla Thakuri from western Neapl was appointed as courtier in Shiva Dev I place. He introduces various reforms. He constructed Kailash Kut Bhawan.
  3. Jaya Dev II: The last famous king of Lichhavi dynasty. His Pashyupati inscription gives the genealogy of the Lichchhavi dynasty. Main feature: Religions toleration, effective administration, different types of taxes, art and architecture, trade and commerce.

Medieval Period
  1. Raghavadevia who founded ruling dynasty since 879 A.D. by which date the Lichchhavi dynasty come to an end and it is guessed that a new Thakuri dynasty was started by Raghadeva, According Dr. Regimi this dynasty have ruled till 1044 A.D. by 10 kings of this time. At about 11th century, Nepal was split into three states. The Khasiya Mallas dominated the sestern Nepal, the Dayas took control of the eastern Terai by Nanya Dev, and the Mallas come to power in Kathmandu valley. In due course of time the Western Nepal was further divided into 46 Principalities:-24 in Gandak region known as Chaubisi and 22 in Karnali region knew as Baise. The eastern states were also divided into at least three principalities ruled by Sena kings. The Kathmadu valley was split into three small kingdoms- Kantipur, Lalitpur & Bhaktapur during the time of Yaksha malla in 14th century.
Sha dynasty of Gorkha (early Shah Period
  1. Bhupal Rana Jee Rao come from Chitwod (India) in 1495 A.D. and settled in Ridi of Palpa. Later on the sifted to Bhirkot. He has two sons name.
Harihar Singh (Khancha Khan – Lcal name)
Kulmandal Khan, the sixth generation figure of this line became the king of Kasski & established good relation with Indian king gave the title of ‘Shah’ to Kulmandal Khan then he started writing “King Kulmandal Shah”. He has two sons – Kalu Shah& Yasobrahma Shah, Kalu Shah became the king of Lamjung & after few month he died. After few months Kulmandal Shah united the Kaski & Lamjung, after the death of Kulmandal Shah, Yasobrahma Shah become the king of Lamjun. He has two sons –Narahari Shah & Drabya Sha.
After the death of Yasobrahma Sha, Narahari Shah become the king of Lamjng & Drabya Shah was appointed the chief of boarder (Raginas Pass) between Lamjung Gorkha (disputed area).
Slowly Drabya Shah won the Lig Lig Kot on 1558 & later on he conquered Gorkha on 1559 A.D. & he became the king of Gorkha.
After Draba Shah 1559 – 70, Purandar Shah ruled 1570-1605, Chhatra Shah 1605-1606 & then brother Ram Shah & Grandson Rudra Shah 1644-69, Prithvi Pati Shah 1669-1716, Narbhupal Shah 1716-43 & finally Prithvi Narayan Shah became the king of Gorkha before unification of Neal till 1768.
  1. Modern Nepal
Prithvi Narayan Shah was born on 11 January 1723 (1779 Poush 27) from the second queen Kausalyawoti. He was very clever & active. Well educated in palace.
    1. The first attack on Nuwakot by Narabhupal Shah on 1737 & Gorkhalis were defeated by Nuwakotes.
    2. Marriage of P.N. Shah with Indra Kumari of Makawanpur princess on 1738. But the bride did not sent immediately.
    3. Second marriage of P.N Shah with Narendra Laxmi, princess of Banaras, daughter if Abhiman Singh on 1740 A.D.
    4. P.N. Shah Visit to Bhaktapur: Friendship with prince (Bir Narsingh) of Bhaktapur and P.N. Shah spent one year at Bhaktapur and studied the situation of the valley.
    5. The second attack on Nuwakot by Narbhupal Shah on 1742 A.D. & Gorkhalis were again defeated by the Nuwakotes.
    6. Narabhupal Shah died on January 1743 & Prithvi Narayan Shah became the king of Gorkha at the age of 20.
    7. Prithvi Narayan Shah began his military campaign from 1743, he has visited Banaras & collected many arms & wealth, he came back to his country 7 started to strengthen the military by giving training’s & motivations.
    8. P.N Shah Attack & conquest Nuwakot on 1744, conquest of Belkot, Changu, Dolkha etc. His conquest Kirtipur in 1766 A.D. He lost his Kaji Kalu Pande in the First battle of Kirtipur on 1757 & again lost his brother’s eyes in the second battle with Kirtipur on 1764 finall he started his own campaign to Kirtipur & got victorty of 1766 Conquest of Makanwanpur Aug 1762 clash with Gurgin.
In Kantipur the last Malla king was Jaya Prakash & in Lalitpur Tej Narshing Malla & in Bhaktapur Ranajit Malla. Prithvi Narayan Shah Shifted his palace from Gorkha to Kathmandu on 1770. He died on 1775 at Dev Ghat.
    1. Rajendra Laxmi advanced the unification process by conquering Chaubisi states, notably Kaski, Lamjung & Tanahyu after the death of her husband king Pratap Singh Shah who was ruling since 2 and half years ago.
    2. Bahadur Shah-Rajendra Laxmi Devi died on 1785 & Bahadur Shah became the regent of Rana Bahadur Shah and conquest of rest of the Chaubisi & Baisi states, conquest of Kumaun & Garhwali, Matrimonial alliance with Palpa. He has also introduced the Rajya system. He fought war with Tibet and china in 1788-92.
    3. Rana Bahadur Shah took all charge of kingship from Bahadur Shah on 1795 A.D.
    4. Rana Bahadur Shah places his infant son Girwan Yuddha Bikram Shah on throne & went to Banaras and a treaty was signed between India & Nepal in 1801 A.D. He retured Nepal in 1804 and assumed control of administration with the help of Bhimsen Thapa. In 1805 Rana Bahadur Shah was assassinated and Bhimsen Thapa came to power as Prime minister.
    5. Bhimsen Thapa: He has conquest of Garhwal, conquest of Palpa, Bisathi Haran, war with British (1814-16) more than one and half year Nepal has fought the war with Gritish under the leadership of Bhimsen Thapa. The British defeated Nepal & finally and agreement was signed between Nepal & east India company. Nepal has lost 1/3 of its territory. The huge area extending from Tista on the east to Sutlaj on the west was reduced to Mechi on the east and Mahakali on the west. (The agreement is called Sugauli treaty (1814-16)
    6. Political instability from 1837-46: Girban Yuddha died in 1816 and his son Rajendra Bikram becdame the king of Nepal. Bhimsen Thapa was charged in poison case and he was put into prision in 1835 & he was died in 137 in Jail. Then after Panday’s choutaria, Gurus & Thapas came to power one after another. The king does not have ability to control the situation. Theere was always clash between the two queens. The desire of junior queen was to place her son on the throne instead of Surendra Bikram Shah. There were self-interests of courtiers & finally the situation was favorable to Jung Bahadur Rana.
Rana Regime – (1846-1951)
    1. Kot Massacre:- On 14th September 1846 Gagan Singh, the favorite minister of queen Laxmidevi (Junior queen) was shot dead. The queen Laxmideevi ordered for the assembly of top Badars at the Kot to detect the murderer. But instead of detecting the murderer, the Kot drama was ended in a bloodshed resulting in the massacre of all the top Bhandars on 15th September 1846 A.D. and appointed of Jung Bahadur as Muktiyar and commander in-chief.
    2. Bhandar Khal Massacre- Where the queen realized that Jung Bahadur was hesitating to place her son Ranerdra Bikram Shah on the throne. She with the help of Basnets began conspiring against Jung Bahadur. But Jung Bahadur successfully put the Basnets to death and exited the king & queen to India. It was happened on 31st October 1846.
    3. Alau Parva: King Rajendra Folllowed the queen to India. In India the king was encouraged by the exibed courtiers to return to Nepal. Rajendra Bikram with a small force entered Nepal at Alau near Birgunj on July 1847. There was Skirmish between the foreces of Rajendra and that of Jung the former collapsed and Rajendra was taken as prisoner at Kathmandu on August.
    4. In 1848 Jung Bhaadur Kunwar got the title of “Rana” for him and his family and matrimonial alliances were soon contracted with the royal family. In 1856 Jung B. Rana resigned from the Prime minister ship, but within a week he was declared the Maharaja of Kaski & Lamjung from 1857. Jung Bahadur Rana assumed the post of Prime minister retaining the little of Shree 3 Maharaj. He developed agnate roll of succession.
    5. After Jung Bahadur, conspiratorial politics developed inside the nepali court, Ranaudip was assassinated. Dev Samser was outset, Bhim Samser died a mysterious death, Juddha and Padma Samser were forced to resign and Mohan Samser was out set along with the Rana regime by a democratic movement launched by Nepali congress, with the active support of King Tribhuvan.

Democratic movement 1950-60
a. Nepali National congress was founded in 1947 in India and next year Nepal democratic congress was formed with the financial support of C class Ranas residing in India. The former had volunteers and the later had money, so in April 1950. These two parties were united into one to form Nepali Congress. The 1950s’ movement, under the banner of Nepali congress over threw the century old Rana regime.
b. King Tribhuvan took political asylum at the Indian embassy on 6 Nov 1950. From where he was flown to Delhi with his family. Mohan Samser declared the abdication of Tribhuvan and proclaimed Gyanendra to be the new king, but no country gave recognition to the new king finally the Delhi agreement was signed & Tribhuvan returned to Nepal on 15 Feb, 1951 with the package of political solution.
c. The Royal proclamation of 18Feb 1951 mentioned
I. Ending of Rana Regime
II. Electon of constituent assembl
III. Rana congress coalition cabinet with Rana P.M. the mixed cabinet could not work in harmony. The Rana’s wanted to revive their rule with army & police, where as the congress wanted the ouster of the Ranas from the cabinet. The king took the side of congress & Mohan was forced to resign within nine months. Thus the Rana autocracy of 104 years long have been ended.
D. Mahendra Era (1955-59)
I. Diplomatic relation with China was established in 1955 and Nepal was admitted to UNO in the same ye ar. Diplomatic relation were also established to USSR, Japan, or Ceylon, Egypt & west Germany, etc, establishment of Rastra Bank functioning of supreme court, implementation of civil service act, formation of planning commission, promulgation of judicial administratin act.
Parliamentary rule (1959-60)
The 1959 general election was great landmark. It was peacefully 42% of the voters excercised their franchise and minor political parties were almost defeated, Nepali congress emerged, as the single argest party, capturing 2/3 seats in the lower house of parliament. B.P. Koirala led the cabinet & he became the prime minister. He declared that the previous constitution was not fully democratic. He also mentioned the differences between the previous cabinet and his babinet which represented the people King, Mahendra did not want to remains as a constitutional monarch. So on 15 December 1960, the king desmisssed the cabinet, dissolved the parliament, and suspendedthe provisions of constitution, leveling several charges against the cabinet. The king formed advisory committee in his presidency to rule the nation. Finally he declared the Panchayat political ststem in January 1961 banned all the political parties. Finally a constitution (new) was promulgated in December 1962. The king was supreme leader and Mahendra was died in 1972 A.D.
E. Restoration of Democracy 1990
People remained unsatisfied with the workingof Panchayat ststem. In 1990 the people of Nepal under the banner of Nepali congress and united left front launched a mass movement against the Panchyat regime, finally, parliamentary democracy was restored and a constitution with sovereignty vested in the hands of the people was promulgate.


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