All high posts of the state were held by the Ranas. The large farms and the resources of the kingdom were captured by the ruling class. Exploitation was rampant. People were deprived of all fundamental rights. Within the Rana family itself there was perpetual tension, consppiracy and flattery to gain the power of the state. The whole system was based on the pleasure of the Prime Minister. Thus a family regime based on autocratic and overcentralized principles of governance stated. The country was isolated from the outside world and the people were kept in darkness.
However, due to the frequent pressure of some people educated out of the country, Ranas were bound bring some changes in the country. Some changes made by them can be illustrated here:
1. Jung Bahadur Rana:
He disapprived of Sati system and granted parental property rights to woman who decided to spend her life as a maiden. he introduced English education and letter press in Nepal. In 1910 B.S. he published the code called “Anin Sangrah”. The code is a reform brought in the old penal system based on physical torture.
2. Ranodip Singh:
He opened the English school established during Jung Bahadur’s time to all the children of Rana family. He allocated money for the poor students studying in Sanskrit school. In 1884 A.D. a Nepali calender was published in nepal. 3. Bir Samsher:
His rule is marked by several soceal works of public welfare. He encouraged Sanskrit education and established High school, Bir Hispital, Bir Tower, Bir Library, and a suspension bridge at Kulekhani. The present building of Durbar High Schoool was built by him. He made provision to supply drinking water to the people of Kathmandu and Bhaktapur. He discouraged Sati and Slaveries. He started giving away awards “Prabal Gorkha Daksin Bahu” and “Priya Drshini” to the people who served the nation honestly.
4. Dev Sumsher:
Being a liberal minded ruler, he wanted to abolish sati and slavery. He began the publication of Gorkhapatra once a week. He highly regarded the suggestions of the people. In order to keep people informed about the world, he established altogether 30 schools in the country.
5. Chandra Sumsher:
He abolished slavery effectively from 1st of Baishakh 1982 B.S. Moreover, he eleminated Sati. Darbar School was opened to all people. He had set up nearly 50 schools. He established Tri-chandra college (1919 A. D.), Bhaktapur Hospital, Trichandra Memorial Army hospital, a Tuberculosis Hospital at Tokha, and Leprosy Hospital in Khokana.
6. Bhim Sumsher:
He provided additional drinking water to Kathmandu and Morang. In 1931 A.D., he changed capital punishment into life imprisonment except in sedition.
7. Juddha Sumsher:
He setteld the long-pending disputes between the Brahmins of different status. The tradition of observing rituals on the death of one’s family member was shortened by 13 days. Extravagance on other rituals and festivals was minimised by laws. S.L.C., I.A., B.A. examinations began to be held in Kathmandu. Along with the publication of “Sharda” and ‘Udyog’, Gorkhapatra was published twice a week.
8. Padma Sumsher:
He liberalised education and granted the people the right to establish high schools, and middle schools in private sector. He had established padmodaya High School, Kanya Mandir School and Padma Kanya School in Kathmandu. In order to promote adult literacy he set up Basic schools in 2004 B.S. “Gorakhapatra” was published thrice a week. Teachers training program was also implemented. People were given freedom to keep radio.
9. Mohan Sumsher:
In 2005 B.S. he opened nearly 87 primary schools in the country. Tree plantation was encouraged. He dug many canals, engineering school was also set up. State officials were oppointed on the bisis of merit. He increased the pay of state employees.