The year 1990, proved as historical wastorical watershed for Nepal. In the beginning of 1989, the Trade and Transit Treaty with the Government of India lapsed, which caused severe hardship to the people and hindered export and import of the country. In the meantime, the communist parties were trying to unite and the Nepali Congress was seeking for the national conference of the party. Finally, seven communist parties united which is called United Left Front (ULF) and the Nepali Congress called for the national conference on 5-7 January 1990 in Kathmandu. A conference was held attended by a large number of national and Indians as well as some foreign delegates, which confessed a spark of the mass movement. At the same time, the Nepali Congress and the United Left Front decided to dismount against the Partyless Panchayat System and they fixed the date of the movement on. 18th February 1990. Ont he other hand, the Panchayat Government tried its best to obstruct national conference but it could not succeed.
The speeches of Indian delegates and the Nepalese leaders excited the people for movement. The Panchas criticized the speeches of the conference and the government under the premiership of Marich Man Singh, launced processions and meetings in favour of the Panchayat System as well as governcent began arresting party workers and leaders. Clashes between the Panchas and the multipartists took place and the cases of violence began to spread all over the valley.
The movement was launched on scheduled date, i.e, on 18th February 1990 (7th Falgun 2046 B.S.). The Demonstrations were held in various parts of the country. The police force came down heavily against the demonstrators. Some people were shot dead in Bhaktapur, Palpa and Chitwan and many of them were injured. Then the session of violence started to spread in some other towns. The people of Patan (Lalitpur) and Kirtipur seized the towns from government’s control and protested against the Panchayat regime. The government failed to suppress the movement. At the same time. His Majesty King Birendra dismissed Marich Man Singh’s Government and an interim government was formed under the premiership of Mr. Lokendra Bahadur Chand. Nevertheless, the movement applied curfew in the town. Considering the failure of two days’s curfew and loss of lives His Majesty the King BIrendra lifted the ban of the political pariies, granted freedom to the press and formed a COnstitution Reforns Commission in April 1990.
On 8th April 1990, His Majesty Birendra invited the leaders of movement such as Mr Ganesh Man Singh, Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, Girija Prasad Koirala, Mana Mohan Adhikari, Mrs Sahana Pradhan , etc. to the palace and promised to fulfill their demands for restoring the multiparty system in Nepal. An interim gov ernment under the premiership of Mr Krishna Prasad Bhattarai was formed. The government sonsisted of eleven members, four from the Nepali Congress, three from the ULF, two from independents and two Royal nominees. Themain responsibilities of the interim government were to frame a democratic constitution and to hold general election within a year. Thus the Panchayat System of about three decades came to an end multiparty system was restored in Nepal.
We know that the constitution fo Nepal 2047 was democratic but it did not represent the sentiments of Madhesi, Mahila, Dalit, Janjai, Marginalized people and disadvantaged groups. It was drafted by a few people. They were representatives of Congress, CPNUML, Royal Palace and independent. The constitution declared Nepal as a Hindu kingdom including constitutional monarchy. There was less people’s participation. After few years, Maoists started armed styruggle. Its main motto was to liberate the people from economic, social political and gender based disparities and discriminations. After the brutal assassination of king Birendra and his family, (Jestha 19th 2058) King Gyanedra dismissed the cabinet of Sher Bahadur Deuba and took all executive powers of country in his hand. After that all political parties were against palace and monarchy. Seven Party lliance strongly suported Maiosts’ Twelve points Agreements between SPA and Maoist in Delhi for building the ground for the foundation of Mass Movement-II on Mansir 7th, 2062. There was Mass Revolution II. After that king Gyanendra was compelled to reinstate the dissolved house of representatives. The leaders of the movement wanted a new Constituent Assembly and total transfer of power to people. G.P. Koirala became the prime minister on the unanimity of eight parties. On Jestha 4th, 2063, 25 points peace code of conduct between the Government and Maoist was signed. On Mansir 5th 2063 Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed between Prime Minister G.P. Koirala and Chairman Prachand. An interim Government was formed including the third amendment resolving to make Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic important lessons. The days of unbridled monarchy are over. Secondly even those who believe in armed revolution have to come to negotiating table and join in the constitutional process in which they alone could not be representatives of Npali people.