The higher ranks of the state were captured by the Ranas. No ordinary people could get higher ranks either in civil or military protocol. The king was only a titular head of the state. However, there were some achievements during the Rana regime.
Offices like law, council, revenue were established. Postal office, foreign office, regional offices were established. The pajani system got continuity from the reign of Prithvi Narayan Shah. It was a tradition of hiring and firing officials from the government offices. Appeal system was in practice only in Daudaha (direct inspection system). The Ranas were the chief of Daudaha. After his visit to Europe, Janga Bahadur issued Muluki Ain (Civil Act) in 1910 B.S.
The backbone of the Nepalese economy was agriculture. junga Bahadur started tea plantation in Illam. Chandra Shamsher constructed many irrigation canals. Juddha Shamsher also reformed in agriculture and industry. Cottag3e industry, paper, arms, metal, plywood, soap, cotton industries were established. Nepal Company Act was enacted to secure these industries. Juddha Shamsher organized agricultural exhibitions in order to motivate the farmers in agriculture. Trans-Himalayan trade and Indo-Nepal trade was circulated. A few raw materials of Nepal were exported to the overseas countries through India.
Janga Bahadur tried to reform the society from 1903 B.S. The Muluki Ain (state code) in the witten form was brought into effect. This Act brought uniformity in the legal sector. It tried to abolish sati and slavery system, but that was not successful. In 1977 B.S, slavery of various forms was abolished and emancipated slaves were sent to British army to fight in the Second World War. Remaining slaves were provided land in Vikshyakhori in Amalekhgunj. Widow marriage was partially in practice except in the Upadhyaya Brahman family. Property rights of women were partially provided.
Western education was introduced during the Rana rules. That was only for the Rana and Shah family. Deva Shamsher, a liberal Prime Minister of Nepal, established 100 basic schools and started publishing the weekly newpaper Gorkhapatra. Chandra Shamsher established Tri-Chandra College for higher education. Similary, Padam Shamsher opened girl’s schools (Kanya School) for girls’ education. Family based, oligarchic, despotic Rana rule did not abolish the untouchability, caste system, child marriage, old age marriage, dowry system and polygamy.