Vaisalia was the Lichchhavis homeland. After it was destroyed by Ajatsatru, they flew away to Nepal. Supuspa was the first lichchhavis to enter Nepal and Jaydev I established Lichchhavi rule in Nepal in around 300 A.D. Jaya Dev I was the first king of this line. He has defeated Vasker Verma of of soma dynasty and established Lichchhavis dynasty.
Mandev was a great Lichchhavi king. He ascended the throne after his father Dharmdev’s death. He was very young when he bacame king. His mother Rajyawati helped him much in the administration. Mandev is called the first historacal king of Nepal. It is proved by the stone inscription in front of Changu Narayan temple.
Mandev was a very powerful, brave and good administrator. He crushed his rebellous loords. He extended his territory up to the Himalayas in the north, across the Kaligandaki in the west and the Koshi in the east. Nepal developed in trade and industry. He was a devotee of Vishnu but he respected Buddhism also. He made severals temple, vihars and chaityas. He built the temple of Changu Narayan in Bhaktapur.
Performed a yajna and gave gifts to the Brahmins. He established the idols of Trivikram, Vaman and Vishnu. Besides, he built taps, patis and pauwas. He built a palace called ‘Mangrih’. He issued coins called ‘Manank’. That was the first coin in Nepal.
He was a learned man. Art and literature developed during his rule. He loved his subjects and respected his mother.
After Mandev his son Shivdev I sat on the throne. He was a religious minded, learned and patient king. He entrusted the task of administration with Anshuverma.
Anshuverma was a high official in the court of Shivdev I. THe king was very pleased with him and made him Mahasamant. At last he was made king by Shivdev I.
Anshuverma was an able King. He was very clever. He always thought about the good of his people. He encouraged foreign trade. Many things from Nepal sere sent abroad. He brought reforms in weight and measurement. He made arrangements for irrigation. So agriculture and animal husbandry developed. The economic condition of the Subject improved. To protect the country he made forts.
He was a devotee of Vishnu, but he respected Buddhism. He built temples and vihars. He was a learned man and respected the learned. He made a seven-storeyed grand palace called Kailashkut Bhawan. He conducted administration from there. He loved the freedom of his country. King Srong Tsang Gampo of China and King Harshavardhan of India were very powerful. They wished to extend their teritories. Anshuverma gave his daughter Bhrikuti to Srong Tsang Gampo in marriage. So king Harshavardhan could not dare attack Nepal. Anshuverma introduced a samvat. There was peace in the country. Nepal progressed during his rule.
Some Famous Kings in the Duration of Lichchhavi Period:
A. Mana Dev: The first historical king of nepal. His change Narayan inscription dated 464 A.D. gives valuable information about Lichchhavis rule. He suppressed the feudal chiefs of the east and west and also conquered Mallapuri. he minted Manaka coin and constructed Managriha the new palace for him.
B. Ansuverma: He was not belonged to Lichchhavi dynasty, the was a famous king of the period. He suppressed the powerful Guptas (Courtiers) a malla Thakuri from western Nepal was apppointed as courtier in Shiva Dev 1st place. He introduces various reforms. He constructed Kailash Kut Bhawan.
C. Jaya Dev II : He was the last famous king of Lichhavi dynasty. His Pashupati inscription gives the genealogy of the of Lichchhavi dynasty. He did very well reformation in the part of social and political, different types of taxes, art and architecture, trade and commerce.
Mediaeval Period :
Raghavadevia who founded a ruling dynasty since 879 A.D. ; by which date the Lichchhavi dynasty come to an end and it is guessed that a new Thakuri dynasty was started by Raghadeva, according to Dr. Regimi this dynasty have ruled till 1044 A.D. by around 10 kings of this time. At about 11th century, Nepal was split into three states. The Khasiya Mallas dominated the western Nepal, the Dayas took control of the eastern Terai by nanya dev, and the Mallas come to power in Kathmandu valley. In due course of thime the Western Nepal was further divided into 46 Principalities:- 24 in Gandak region known as Chaubisi and Baise in Karnali region known as Baise. The eastern states were also divided into at least three principalities ruled by sena kings. The Kathmandu valley was split into three small kingdom – Kantipur, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur during the time of Yaksha Malla in 14th century.