Saturday, July 31, 2010

Life Insurance in Nepal

Life Insurance in Nepal

There are 9 life insurance companies in Nepal till now the date of 2010. Among them 8 company are from private sector and only one company is from the government sector. Most of the companies are focusing their business in the city area. But, these days companies are also enhancing there business in the rural area because of high competition in urban area.

These below are the name of Life Insurance Company of Nepal. Which providing the service from Urban to Rural area.

  1. Nepal Life Insurance Company
  2. Gurance Life Insurance
  3. Bima Sansthan (government company)
  4. Prime Life Insurance Company
  5. Surya Life Insurance Company
  6. American Life Insurance Company
  7. Asian Life Insurance Company
  8. Life Insurance Corporation
  9. National life Insurance

From above list Gurans Life Insurance company is very good company in Nepal for the people to be insured. Its premium is very low in the comparison of other company.

Market of the life insurance company in Nepal

There are lots of possibilities to enhance the business of life insurance in Nepal. In total only the 5% of people are insured. Still 95% of people are uninsured. Even the large numbers of people who live in Kathmandu are also not insured. However, they have known the importance of life insurance.

Main challenges to enhance the business for Life Insurance company in Nepal

The main challenge is to make aware the people about importance of life insurance. Why people should be insured? The insurance company must go to rural area but still they are focusing the cities. Another challenge in the current situation to make able to people to find out the differences between the networking company and Life Insurance Company. In the market, people fell same as network marketing to the life insurance company. People must know that life insurance company and networking company is totally different from each other. Life Insurance Company is totally fair and it is always monitored by the Government Authorized Institution. And all life Insurance Company has to deposit 250 million rupees and then they get permission to start their business

10 tips for losing your weight

Simple 10 tips for losing your weight

  1. Eat breakfast- This statement seems little bit abnormal but, some research shows eater get l3ss calorie than the non-eater all over the day. If you have no time to take breakfast, then keep fruits with you and eat while you are traveling.
  2. Don't take Beverage: Don't take cold drinks, Tea, Coffee; Soda such a thing has more calories. One the one hand it will not kill you appetite and on the other hand you will get more calorie. Instead of taking such a thing, water is better for you.
  3. Eat fat less food: Fat food has more calories. So, take it very less.
  4. Eat fruit instead of Junk Food: Instead of eating junk food or chocolate it is better to eat fruit and curry. It can help you to eat fewer calories.
  5. Pre-plan: If you have to go to party. Then, take healthy food in your home before going their. So, you eat there less fat full food.
  6. Eat less meat: Eat less meat because meat has more calories.
  7. Take more Soup and Salad: Take more soup and salad before taking heavy meal. And then you will not need to have heavy food.
  8. Use small plate: Put your food in small plate and you will feel that you are eating more. If you put less in small plate it seems more than same quantity in big one.
  9. Use spray: You can use spray to make your food tasty like there is calorie.
  10. Stop eating 3 hours before you sleep: If you keep eating late night you will collect more calories in your body.

To loose your weight it is not necessary to hard dieting. You can gradually loose your weight following these above given tips.

Friday, July 30, 2010

BBA Second Year Result Published

Trivuwan University (TU), Office of Examination Controller, Balkhu has published BBA 2nd year result held on 2067. To view the result there is no site up to now.

I am not getting way to view the result. But you can go to Balkhu and check. Balkhu publishes the result on its wall. They put the result on the wall of Balkhu. If you can not go yourself, you can call to friend who have been there at this time.

It is the easy way to view result online. But, T.U. has not put result its website. When I get any website that put the result. I make link here and you can check. For that please keep checking this site:


Tamang is a major ethnic group of Nepal. According to National census its population is 1,179,145. Tamang settlement is mostly in surrounding of Kathmandu Valley. Neighbour district of Kathmandu like; Kavre, Rasuwa, Sindhupalchowk, Dolakha is the major settlement of this group. But, Tamang people live every region of Nepal may be that more or less. In size of population it is in Fifth position of caste and Third position in ethnic group of Nepal.


Tamang people speak their own mother language 'Tamang'. Tamang language is based on Bhot-Barmeli language. They also speak Nepali (National Language of Nepal) and educated Tamang people speak excellent English.


Tamang people follow Bouddha religion. But still there is in practice Bon Religion. Mostly the Tamang people feel proud to say Buddhist to them. They go to Gumba (Buddhist Monastery) and pray to their God Buddha. They follows the Buddhist customs their social activities. They invite to Lama in their birth ceremony and cremation. Lamas give name to new birth child according to their religious book.


Lhochhar is main festival of Tamang . In the Tamang Language 'Lho' means Year and 'Chhar' means New. According to terminology Lhochhar means 'New Year'. Tamang people celebrate this festival around one month. This festival falls in month of Falgun (February). They celebrate this festival gathering and dancing. In the occasion of this festival they make tasty food and they eat in group. They see their relatives and friends in this time. However, Tamang people celebrate many more other festivals. Like; Dhasain and Tihar (it is the main festival of Hindu), Chaite Dhasain, Saune Sankranti etc.


Tamang peoples' main occupation is agriculture. But these days divers occupation they follow. Most of the Tamang young are involve in Tourism Industry. Some people follow business, official job, and go to abroad employment.

Sub-caste in Tamang:

There are more than 40 sub-castes in Tamang community. These are the major sub-castes of Tamang; Moktan, Syangbo, Yonjan, Waiba, Pakhrin, Lopchan, Rumba, Bal, Gole, Bamjan, Thokar, Thing, Dong, Syangdan, Ghising, Blon etc. Most important thing is that between same sub-castes does not allow to marriage by society. Like; Syangbo boy and Syangbo girl can not engage in marriage. Moktan and Syangbo can get marry. This system is also differently existent according to place they settle. Like some places there can get marriage between Pakhrin and Syangbo but some where not.


I ---------- Nga
You ------ Aai, Rhang
We ------- Hyang
They ----- The ghade (e sounds first sounds of egg sounds)
He ------ -- The
She ------- The
---- Tam Eat ------- Chaba
Work ----- Gyat
Walk ------ Braba
Go -------- Niba
Come ------- Khaba
Cry--------- Haaba
Laugh----------- Ngetpa
Run ------------ Yarpa
My ------------- Ngala
His/hir -------- Thela Our --------- Yangla


Grand Father ----------- Meme
Grand Mother ---------- Mam
Father ------------------ Aba, Aappa
Mother ----------------- Aama
Elder Brother --------- Jyojo
Elder Sister ----------- Nana
Younger Brother ----- Aale
Younger Sister -------- Aale, Buring
Husband --------------- Kheppa
Wife -------------------- Khuyu
Son --------------------- Jhaa Daughter -------------- Jame


Maternal Uncle -------- Aasyang
Maternal Aunty --------- Aangi
Uncle --------------------- Aagu
Aunty --------------------- Aasu
Namaste ! -------------- Fyafulla
Thank you ------------- Thujechhe
How are you? ---------- Sanchon Mula
I am fine ---------------- Lhaso, Sanchon Mula
Where are you going? --------- Khando Braba
What time did you come here?--- Kade bela churi bhyongkhaji
Did you have meal? -------- Seba solji

Tasaleem Nasareen Cancelled her Nepal Trip

Bangladeshi Feminist author Tasaleem Nasareen cancelled her trip due to security trip. She had invited for the Literature Festival 2011 fall on Sunday in Nepal. Yesterday she had to miss her flight to Kathmandu because she had no passport. And she wrote in her twitter “My Nepali friends, I missed my flight to go to Kathmandu Saturday. I forgot to bring my passport as I didn´t consider Nepal a foreign country!”

In the response of the statement there were lots of critique and threaten for her. And the security will be problem for her. So, she cancelled her trip to Nepal.

She is exiled from the 1994 from the Bangladesh.

Thursday, July 29, 2010

How to Prepare Best for IELTS EXAM in Nepal











There are four Test in IELTS (International English Language Testing System). IELTS is most important test for the people who wants to study or migrate in English Speaking country. Like; USA, UK, AUSTRALIA, CANADA, NEW ZELAND.

1. Writing Test:

Time: 60 minute (Score: 9)

  1. In writing test there are 2 task:

I. Essay writing: (Score: 5.4)

II. Report writing: (Score: 3.6)

I. Essay writing: Task-1

In this task you have to write an essay minimum of 250 words.

In essay writing there are 3 steps:

- Introduction

- Body

- Conclusion

In introduction there are three factors to consider while writing an essay. It should be short, satisfactory and informative.

In introduction part, you should focus on:

1. Start your writing from the given topic

- Do not copy given topic as it is

- Re-state the given topic in your own language

- Change the words write synonyms (For re-stating can write in passive form)

-While re-stating do not go out of topic

2. Focus: (1 sentence and positive attitude)

- I agree to the given statement ……….

- I strongly believe that……….

- I support to the opinion that

- I disagree to the given statement………

- I oppose to the opinion that…..

- However, I believe…….

- In my opinion…..

3. Supporting sentences (1 or 2 sentence)

- Give your opinion about the topic

- Proverbs (optional)

In body Part (2/3 paragraph)

Each paragraph 6/7 lines are enough. And focus on:

-Explanation (advantages/disadvantages/both)

- Example ( you need proof and evidence)

- Extra detail (Specific knowledge)

In conclusion Part:

(1 paragraph within 2 to 3 sentence)

- To conclude, …

- In conclusion, …

- To sum up, …

- Finally, …

- From above discussion and arguments it is clear that …

Now you have complete essay.

What to do while writing an essay:

- Use vocabulary signals

- Use introducing words:

- The first point is …

- The second point is …

- The Third point is …

- Use linkers: Linkers are:(However, furthermore, moreover, similarly, in fact, on the first hand, in the same way, tin another word, nonetheless, nevertheless, likewise, in this case, last but not the least)

- Use conjunctions: Conjunctions are: not only but also, either or, neither nor, although, even though, in spite of, despite, as soon as.

What not to do while writing an essay.

- Avoid the using of slang words ( like : u, r, m- here write complete word, you, are, am)

- Avoid the using of words ( etc., &, i.e., Ex; )

- Do not complete your sentence with so on, that's it, that's all

- Avoid the using of the words: thing, something, many thing

- Avoid the using of contracted words: Can't (×)- Can not (Ö), Don't(×)-do not (Ö)

- Avoid the using of- :!, ?, :

II. Report Writing: Task -2

In this task you should write minimum 150 words. Here preposition, articles, data are also counted.

Object Oriented

-Flow chart

- Map

Data Oriented

- Table

- Bar-Chart

- Pie- Chart

- Graph

In report writing there are 3 steps:

1. Introduction

2. Body

3. Conclusion

In introduction part there are 3 factors:

-use reference structure

-Write caption (copy as it is) –can restate

-if caption is not given in figure than take information from the figure

-division of information

Body (write 2/3 paragraph)

-5/6 lines each paragraph

-presentation of statically data

-what is about the figure just present that only

-data presentation and analysis

Two types of figure

-fixed date figure: no date or single date

Change over time (more than one date)

Fixed date figure

Data presentation

-date present column wise

-for data presentation follow ascending or descending order

-date present for each variable (group) separately

-make report individually for each


-row wise (other group) compare to other

-analysis which group data has been presented

-for analysis use the words maximum, minimum, high/low, small/large, more/less


-present total number of data

-follow ascending or descending order

Note: data present in number

-numerical (10)

-not words (ten)

-up to 5 digit write in number

Object Oriented

-flow chart


Flow chart

-explain the objects which are given in figure

-for explanation follow the direction which are given in figure

-use passive form


-fixed date

-changeover time

Introduction of Thami Caste

Thami is one of the identified ethnic groups of Nepal. There are 61 identified ethnic groups in Nepal and Thami caste is one of the most important castes among the ethnic groups of Nepal. Thami caste covers about 22,999 population of Nepal according to census of 2001. Thami mainly live in Dolakha district. In Dolakha district they can be found in Chemawati, Suspa, Kalinchowk, Alampu, Lalipang, Bigu, Lakuri Danda. But these days they live in different places in some number. Real picture of Thami can be still found in Dolakha district.

Language: Thami people speak their own language Thami. Their language is from Bhot-Barmeli language. Somehow their language and culture are influence from Tamang. They are also able to speak Nepali language. Some educated people from Thami can speak excellent English and Hindi language.

Religion: Thami people follow Hindu, Buddha and Bon religion. There can be found some Thami are practicing Buddha and some are practicing Bon and Hindu.

Festivals: Dasain, Tihar, Udhauli, Uvauli, Baisakh Purnima are some main festival of Thami people. Baishakh purnima is main festivals of Thami people. They also celebrate Dashain and Tihar as like Hindu.

Occupation: Most number of Thami people are engaged in agriculture.

Sub-caste in Thami: There are many sub-castes in Thami. It is interesting thing is that Thami has male and female different sub-castes. Some male sub-castes are- Reshmi, Akayagmi, Budapere, Dungsupere, Rami Dati. Some female sub-castes are-Khattichhire, Galva.

Some words to learn Thami language:

How are you?-----Nangkbo halkhabar?
I am fine ! --------- Gaika halkhabar thikai hoku.

Some name of foods to know in Thami langaue:

Cooked rice-----Isa, boro

How they call to family member in their language:

Elder brother----Bubu
Younger brother---Hu
Elder sister-------Tete
Younger sister-------Humi

Some name of animals to know in Thami langaue:


Wednesday, July 28, 2010

Dr. Baburam Bhattarai elected New Prime Minister for Nepal

Dr. Baburam Bhattarai has been elected new Prime Minister for Nepal (Bhattarai is Vice chairman UCPM). He is 35th Prime Minister of Nepal. Bhattarai defeated his rival Ramchandra Poudel (candidate from Nepali Congress).

In the election held in the parliament assembly there were 575 participated. Among them 340 votes were in the support of Bhattarai and 235 votes gone the Poudel.

Nepali Jana Andolan 2062/63 (Nepali Mass Movement 2062/63)

The Panchayat System introduced by Late king Mahendra in 1960, collapsed in 1990. The leaders of the banned Nepali Congress, Communist and other political parties were opposing the system from the very beginning of its application. Therefore three amendments were made in the Panchayat Constitution to make it popular. But the oppositions were not satisfied with the principles and practices of the Panchayat System. So, the leaders of the various opposition parties were trying to restore te multi-party system, which was becoming very popural internationally.

The year 1990, proved as historical wastorical watershed for Nepal. In the beginning of 1989, the Trade and Transit Treaty with the Government of India lapsed, which caused severe hardship to the people and hindered export and import of the country. In the meantime, the communist parties were trying to unite and the Nepali Congress was seeking for the national conference of the party. Finally, seven communist parties united which is called United Left Front (ULF) and the Nepali Congress called for the national conference on 5-7 January 1990 in Kathmandu. A conference was held attended by a large number of national and Indians as well as some foreign delegates, which confessed a spark of the mass movement. At the same time, the Nepali Congress and the United Left Front decided to dismount against the Partyless Panchayat System and they fixed the date of the movement on. 18th February 1990. Ont he other hand, the Panchayat Government tried its best to obstruct national conference but it could not succeed.

The speeches of Indian delegates and the Nepalese leaders excited the people for movement. The Panchas criticized the speeches of the conference and the government under the premiership of Marich Man Singh, launced processions and meetings in favour of the Panchayat System as well as governcent began arresting party workers and leaders. Clashes between the Panchas and the multipartists took place and the cases of violence began to spread all over the valley.

The movement was launched on scheduled date, i.e, on 18th February 1990 (7th Falgun 2046 B.S.). The Demonstrations were held in various parts of the country. The police force came down heavily against the demonstrators. Some people were shot dead in Bhaktapur, Palpa and Chitwan and many of them were injured. Then the session of violence started to spread in some other towns. The people of Patan (Lalitpur) and Kirtipur seized the towns from government's control and protested against the Panchayat regime. The government failed to suppress the movement. At the same time. His Majesty King Birendra dismissed Marich Man Singh's Government and an interim government was formed under the premiership of Mr. Lokendra Bahadur Chand. Nevertheless, the movement applied curfew in the town. Considering the failure of two days's curfew and loss of lives His Majesty the King BIrendra lifted the ban of the political pariies, granted freedom to the press and formed a COnstitution Reforns Commission in April 1990.

On 8th April 1990, His Majesty Birendra invited the leaders of movement such as Mr Ganesh Man Singh, Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, Girija Prasad Koirala, Mana Mohan Adhikari, Mrs Sahana Pradhan , etc. to the palace and promised to fulfill their demands for restoring the multiparty system in Nepal. An interim gov ernment under the premiership of Mr Krishna Prasad Bhattarai was formed. The government sonsisted of eleven members, four from the Nepali Congress, three from the ULF, two from independents and two Royal nominees. Themain responsibilities of the interim government were to frame a democratic constitution and to hold general election within a year. Thus the Panchayat System of about three decades came to an end multiparty system was restored in Nepal.

We know that the constitution fo Nepal 2047 was democratic but it did not represent the sentiments of Madhesi, Mahila, Dalit, Janjai, Marginalized people and disadvantaged groups. It was drafted by a few people. They were representatives of Congress, CPNUML, Royal Palace and independent. The constitution declared Nepal as a Hindu kingdom including constitutional monarchy. There was less people's participation. After few years, Maoists started armed styruggle. Its main motto was to liberate the people from economic, social political and gender based disparities and discriminations. After the brutal assassination of king Birendra and his family, (Jestha 19th 2058) King Gyanedra dismissed the cabinet of Sher Bahadur Deuba and took all executive powers of country in his hand. After that all political parties were against palace and monarchy. Seven Party lliance strongly suported Maiosts' Twelve points Agreements between SPA and Maoist in Delhi for building the ground for the foundation of Mass Movement-II on Mansir 7th, 2062. There was Mass Revolution II. After that king Gyanendra was compelled to reinstate the dissolved house of representatives. The leaders of the movement wanted a new Constituent Assembly and total transfer of power to people. G.P. Koirala became the prime minister on the unanimity of eight parties. On Jestha 4th, 2063, 25 points peace code of conduct between the Government and Maoist was signed. On Mansir 5th 2063 Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed between Prime Minister G.P. Koirala and Chairman Prachand. An interim Government was formed including the third amendment resolving to make Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic important lessons. The days of unbridled monarchy are over. Secondly even those who believe in armed revolution have to come to negotiating table and join in the constitutional process in which they alone could not be representatives of Npali people.

Tuesday, July 27, 2010

General Introduction to Ethnic Groups of Nepal

There are 61 identified and listing different ethnic groups in Nepal. It is under identify more than 45 ethnic groups in Nepal. Ethnic groups cover more than 38 percent population of Nepal. Nepal ethnic groups are very rich of culture and languages. They have many festivals languages and cultural heritage. There are more than 70 different languages are spoken. Bhot-Bormeli language is based of their language.

Here is given 62 identified ethnic groups of Nepal. These are :

1. Magar
2. Tharu
3. Tamang
4. Newar
5. Gurung
6. Rai
7. Limbu
8. Sherpa
9. Thakali
10. Bhote
11. Dolpo
12. Lhomi
13. Larke
14. Liyar
15. Mugali
16. Bara Gaunle
17. Mange
18. Walung
19. Thudam
20. Tangwe
21. Topke Gola
22. Marphali
23. Thintan
24. Chintan
25. Syangtan
26. Chhairotan
27. Byasi
28. Bote
29. Danuwar
30. Kumal
31. Darai
32. Majhi
33. Raji
34. Raute
35. Chepang
36. Jirel
37. Lepcha
38. Sunuwar
39. Thami
40. Dura
41. Hayu
42. Chhantyal
43. Hyolmo
44. Pahari
45. Bhujel
46. Baramo
47. Surel
48. Kusunda
49. Phree
50. Kuswadiya
51. Bankariya
52. Dhanuk
53. Dhimal
54. Gangai
55. Rajbamsi
56. Meche
57. Kisan
58. Satar
59. Tajpuriya
60. Jhankad
61. Lhopa
62. Rajbamsi

For Indigenous issues visit

Online job From your home

There are many online jobs training center in Nepal. They provide you training for online job. Trainings are basically runs for 10-15 days. They charge your Rupees 2000. Your training period will be one hour and shift as you requested. Training center basically teach about google Adsense. Some training center these days has begun Lijit, Infolink, adbrite ad. Mostly there is a trend of Google Adsense. Most important thing is that your earning may not be what they say exactly. To take your money they say 10 or 15 times more than you exactly earn. They give ad in daily newspaper to attract the people. They say you can earn $500 per week but this is never possible. You can earn if you do hard work up to $50 dollar per month. But you get your payment just after $100. So you need at least 2 months to receive you payment.

What they teach in training class?

1. First they will teach you to create gmail account
2. They guide you to create blog
3. To create your site
4. Articles writing and posting
5. Submit your site in search engine
6. Apply for Google Adsense
7. Ad setup (after approving ad)
8. Putting counter in your page
9. Click exchange

This way your training will be finish.

How you Earn?

After creating your website you apply for the ad in your blog or site. If your blog or site is OK Ad provider approved your blog or site for ad. Then in your site ad will appear and when the visitors come to your site and if they click and read your published ad you earn. This is Pay Per Click. They pay you each click by your visitor. If your site has good traffic more earning if less earning is also less. So you must have strong articles and correct information.

Some Ad provider for your site.......

1. Google Adsense - It is pay per click ad provider company. Every body knows about google. They provide ad for your site or blog and when visitors come and click published ad you will earn. You get relevant ad for your site so there are many chances to click your ad. Like this; each click you earn. When you get $100 in you account they send you cheque in your given address.

2. Lijit - Lijit will replace Lijit search bar in your site. And if visitors search from that something and there will appear ad above the search result and if click there you get 10 cent per click. When your accumulate amount reach to $25 they send your payment by PayPal.

3. Infolink - Infolink ad is text line ad. If you put infolink text ad ad there will be appear double underline in your text. When visitors come and click there you will earn. But it is very less payment. Your minimum threshold payment is $50 for PayPal and $400 for ATM. Your payment will be send as your choice.

4. Adbrite - Adbrite is also pay per click ad. They will provide you banner, inline, and full page ad. They pay you each click by your visitor. You can get your payment when your account reaches to $5. If you like to receive more than $5 you have option to choose. This is very easy to get payment of $100 because it will easy to exchange your amount in your local area. You can get your payment by paypal or cheque as your request.

5. BigExtraCash -
Money Making Program in Your Home please sign up for free in this site and make huge money by just using your internet at home.

Good luck! . (Your Boss is yourself!)

Monday, July 26, 2010

Famous Lichhavi Kings

Vaisalia was the Lichchhavis homeland. After it was destroyed by Ajatsatru, they flew away to Nepal. Supuspa was the first lichchhavis to enter Nepal and Jaydev I established Lichchhavi rule in Nepal in around 300 A.D. Jaya Dev I was the first king of this line. He has defeated Vasker Verma of of soma dynasty and established Lichchhavis dynasty.

Famous Kings:
A. Mana Dev: The first historical king of nepal. His change Narayan inscription dated 464 A.D. gives valuable information about Lichchhavis rule. He suppressed the feudal chiefs of the east and west and also conquered Mallapuri. he minted Manaka coin and constructed Managriha the new palace for him.

B. Ansuverma: He was not belonged to Lichchhavi dynasty, the was a famous king of the period. He suppressed the powerful Guptas (Courtiers) a malla Thakuri from western Nepal was apppointed as courtier in Shiva Dev 1st place. He introduces various reforms. He constructed Kailash Kut Bhawan.

C. Jaya Dev II : He was the last famous king of Lichhavi dynasty. His Pashupati inscription gives the genealogy of the of Lichchhavi dynasty. He did very well reformation in the part of social and political, different types of taxes, art and architecture, trade and commerce.

Mediaeval Period :

Raghavadevia who founded a ruling dynasty since 879 A.D. ; by which date the Lichchhavi dynasty come to an end and it is guessed that a new Thakuri dynasty was started by Raghadeva, according to Dr. Regimi this dynasty have ruled till 1044 A.D. by around 10 kings of this time. At about 11th century, Nepal was split into three states. The Khasiya Mallas dominated the western Nepal, the Dayas took control of the eastern Terai by nanya dev, and the Mallas come to power in Kathmandu valley. In due course of thime the Western Nepal was further divided into 46 Principalities:- 24 in Gandak region known as Chaubisi and Baise in Karnali region known as Baise. The eastern states were also divided into at least three principalities ruled by sena kings. The Kathmandu valley was split into three small kingdom - Kantipur, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur during the time of Yaksha Malla in 14th century.

Sunday, July 25, 2010

Unification Campaign of Prithvi Narayan Shah

Along with the expansion of Gorkha kingdom, Prithvi Narayan Shah wanted to protect the country from the claws of the British Empire. He wanted to foil the evil designs of the British, by uniting the small kingdoms into a strong nation. Therefore, just after his accession, he set his foot on to the task of expanding the Gorkha kingdom which ultimately led to the unification of Nepal.

Invasion of Nuwakot

Prithvi Narayan Shah was an ambitious king. Along with the expansion of Gorkha kingdom, Prithvi Narayan Shah wanted to protect the country from the claws of the British Empire. He wanted to foil the evil designs of the British, by uniting the small kingdoms into a strong nation. Therefore, just after his accession, he set his foot on to the task of expanding the Gorkha kingdom which ultimately led to the unification of Nepal. He wanted to extend the territory of his kingdom far and wide. He also wanted to conquer the small kingdoms and unite them into a strong nation. His main target was the kingdoms of Kathmandu valley. Before invading the valley, he had to capture Nuwakot, which was the gateway to the valley and main trade route between Kathmandu and Tibet. His father Narabhupal Shah had been unsuccessful in his attempt to conquer the kingdom of Nuwakot.

Prithvi Narayan Shah sent his force under the command of Kazi Biraj Thapa to attack Nuwakot. Biraj Thapa did not attack immediately after reaching Nuwakot, but he started to study the strength of the Nuwakot army and the situation of the kingdom. Prithvi Narayan Shah did not like the delay of Biraj Thapa and so he sent another force under the command of Maheswar Panta. The Gorkha troops under the command of Maheswar Panta attacked Nuwakot instantly but the Gorkha troops were badly defeated. Thus, Nuwakot was victorious against the Gorkha invasion for the second time. At that time, the Gorkhali Army was unknown about the geographical situation of Nuwakot. During the war, the two Gorkhali commanders blamed each other. On the other hand, the Nuwakot soldiers were aware of the strategic points and they fought at the risk of their lives to save the sovereignty of their kingdom.

Visit of Benaras:

The defeat at the invasion of Nuwakot taught Prithvi Narayan Shah a good lesson. He realized that the standard of his army was below what he had estimated. His troops lacked arms and ammunition and sufficient rations. Leaving his kingdom under the care of his trusted Kazi Kalu Pandey, he went to Benaras (Kashi) to collect war weapons, and to study the polotical and economic condition of the East India Company and other Baise, Choubise Rajya. He reached Benaras, worshipped Bishwanath and changed his Gotra from 'Bharadwaj' into 'Kasyap'. With the hielp of his father-in-lay Abhiman Singh, he acquired different kinds of arms and ammunition necessary for his army. He came back to Gorkha via Butwal and began to train his soldiers in the art of warfare. With the advice of Kalu Pandey he sent for young men from the Terai, recruited them in the Gorkha army and gave them proper training. He began to prepare for the next invasion of Nuwakot.

Peace Alliance with Lamjung:

Kazi Kalu Pandey was a wise, brave and a far-sighted statesman. King Prithvi Narayan Shah had great trust in him. It was Kalu Pandey who advised the king to maintain peace and friendship with the neighbouring kingdoms. He was afraid that the neighbouring kings might attack Gorkha while Prithvi Narayan Shah would be away on his invasion campaign. Prithvi Narayan Shah thus sent Kalu Pandey who had a cordial talk with the king of Lamjung at the basin of the river, Chepe. Because of the diplomatic mind of Kalu Pandey, and alliance could be made between Gorkha and Lamjung, the two traditional enemies. After that, Gorkha made an alliance with Kaski, Tanahun and Palpa.

Conquest of Nuwakot:

Gorkha was now made secure from all sides. Both Prithvi Narayan Shah and Kalu Pandey thought that it was the right time to invade Nuwakot. Under the command of Prithvi Narayan Shah himself, the Gorkha troops attacked Nuwakot on 26 September 1744 from three sides. A troop under the command of Kalu Pandey, ascended the hill from the North through Gerkhu. The Second troop took the Dharma Pani route under the command of Kirti Mahoddam Shah. A third troop was under the command of Prithvi Narayan Shah himself, attacked from the front. Shandermani Rana, the commander of the Nuwakot army was killed in the battle-field and the troops fled to Belkot. Thus, Nuwakot fell in the hands of Prithvi Narayan Shah.

Then Prithvi Narayan Shah attacked Belkot. Kalu Pandey was not in favour of the hasty action but Prithvi Narayan Shah, who was encouraged by his conquest of Nuwakot, gallantly attacked Belkot. The Gorkha troops suffered a heavey loss in this battle. At last, the Gorkha troops won a victory over Belkot. Jayanta Rana, who was in the past, the commander of the Gorkha army during the reign of Narabhupal Shah, was the commander of the Malla troops installed at Belkot. It is said that Prithvi Narayan Shah ordered his soldiers to skin the living body of Jayanta Rana. He was said to have treated Jayanta Rana in that manner to show the fae of a betrayer of Gorkha. After the conquest of Nuwakot, Prithvi Narayan Shah began to control all the areas around the valley. He captured Naddum, Mahadev Pokhari, Dahachowk, Ippa, Malta, Siranchowk, etc.

War with Lamjung:

Lamjung was the age old enemy of Gorkha. It broke the alliance with Gorkha, and taking advantage of the absence of the Gorkha army, crossed the Chepe and took Sirhanchowk. Prithvi Narayan Shah responded by sending an army under the command of Kirti Mahoddam Shah and Bansa Gopal Panta. The Gorkha troops met the Lamjung-troops at Salimpa and a fierce battle was fought. The Horkha troops defeated the Lamjung troops and captured it. Again, the Gorkha troops had to face the combined forces of Lamjung along with other small principalities at Sirhanchowk. Reinforcements arrived from Nuwakot under Kirti Mahoddam Shah, Kalu Pandey and Ambar Pandey. Rudra Shah from Gorkha sent more reinforcements. The Gorkha troops attacked the invaders in the middle of the monsson and successfully drove them back. Many drowned in the rainswollen Chepe. After that the 'Chaubisi' were too weak to trouble Prithvi Narayan Shah any more.

Annexation of Tanahun:

Prithvi Narayan Shah now thought to annex Tanahun to his kingdom. The king of Tanahun, Tribikram Sen, was his father's friend. So, he decided not to invade Tanahun but to capture the king by diplomany. Guru Gaureswar was the common preceptor of Narabhupal Shah and Tribikram Sen. Through this Guru, Prithvi Narayan Shah called KIng Tribikram Sen to the bank of the Trishuli on the pretext of making friendship. Prithvi Narayan Shah had hidden arms in the sand of the bank of the river. When Tribikram Sen came, he was captured by the Gorkhas. He was taken in chains to Nuwakot and was imprisoned there. By such a treacherous act, got hold of Tanahun and annexed it to the kingdom of Gorkha.

Invasion of Kirtipur:

After capturing Lamjung, Tanahun and other neighbouring territories, Prithvi Narayan Shah marched with his troops for the conquest of the valley. He first captured Farpin, Bandegaon, Sunagaon, Khokana and other villages. Veteran leaders and warriors like Kalu Pandey, Dalajit Shah, Dalamardan Shah, Tularam Pandey and Bir Bhadra accompanied him. The Gorkha troops violently attacked Kirtipur. After a terrible fight for six hours, the Gorkha troops got a severe blow from the hands of the combined force of KIritipuris and Jaya Prakash's army. Prithvi Narayan Shah himself had a narrow escape. The brave forty-forus years old Kalu Pandey and four hundred Gorkhali troops were killed in the battle of Balkhu (Kirtipu). The Gorkha troops suffered a heavy loss and the surviving soldiers, along with the king, had to retreat back to Nuwakot.

Victory over the Muslim forces: To defend the aggression of the Gorkhas, the king of Makawanpur, Digbandan Sen, appealed for help to Mir Kasim, the Muslim king of Bengal. Mir Kasim was preparing to wage war aggainst the East India Company. At that time, Mir Kasim was in need of friends, he also wanted desperately to test his newly organized army. So, he accepted the request of Digbandhan Sen and sent his 2000 strong soldiers under the command of Gurgin Khan in 1763. The Gorkhas defeated the well-equipped army of Gurgin Khan. The Muslim troops fled away from the battle-field and the Gorkhas captured their arms and ammunition. This victory over the Muslims raised the morale of the Gorkhas and discouraged the native states of India from interfering in the affairs of the Gorkhas.

Conquest of Makawanpur:

Makawanpur had a control over the southern routes to the Kathmandu valley. Prithvi Narayan Shah thought to conquer and occupy it. Because of the growing power of the Gorkha, Makawanpur was terrified and the king of Makwanpur had planned to join in an alliance with Jaya Prakash Malla to resist the attack of Gorkhas. When Prithvi Narayan Shah came to know this, he sent an army under the command of Kahar Simha Basnyat, Bansaraj Pandey and Ram Krishna Kunwar. Makawanpur forces were defeated in the ten hour battle and they surrendered before the gallant Gorkhas on 21st August 1762. During the war, one-hundered Gorkhali and four-hundred Makawanpur soldiers were killed. Then the Gorkhas attacked and occupied Hariharpur, Timalkot and Sindhulikot. The Gorkhali troops arrested Digbandhan Sen, the king of Makawanpur, on February 13, 1763.

Victory over the British Forces:

Jaya Prakash Malla of Kathmandu was alarmed at the growing power of Prithvi Narayan Shah. He sought help from the East India Company in order to defend his kingdom from the Gorkha aggression, just as the king of Makawanpur had appealed to Mir Kasim. The East India Company sent 2400 soldiers in 1767 under the command of General Kinloch who tried to enter Nepal via Sindhuli. The 120 Gorkha soldiers under the leadership of Bir Bhadra Thapa and Kaji Bansha Raj Pandey, attacked them in the hills above Sindhuli. The British soldiers were not aware of the techniques of hill warfare nor the bravery of theGorkhas. They could not fight against the Gorkhas and ran away from the battle-field. This time also, the Gorkhas captured a huge supply of ammunition and cannons which they used in future wars.

Economic Blockede to the Valley:

Prithvi Narayan Shah had learned a good lesson from his defeat at Kirtipur. Therefore, planned thoroughly his invasion of Kathmandu valley and captured all the strategic positions around the valley. He had already captured Naldum, Mahadev, Nuwakot, Belkot, Shivapuri and Dahachowk, in the north and west of Kathmandu valley. He then occupied Makawanpur, the southern gateway of the valley. He also captured several villages that surrounded the valley. he cut off the imports and exports of the valley and brought about an economic crisis in the valley kingdoms. Prithvi Narayan Shah used to give capital punishmentv to those who would supply a little bit of salt and cotton to the valley during his economic blockade period. In this way, due to his far-sighted diplomacy, Prithvi Narayan Shah weakend the position of the valley kingdoms and invaded them at the right time.

Conquest of Kirtipur:

Prithvi Narayan Shah had already occupied Dhulikhel, Banepa, Panauti, Panga, Farping and Chobhar, by 1764. On 16th September 1764, he attacked Kirtipur for the second time. But he was defeated again by the Kirtipuris. Sur Pratap Shah, the youngest brother of Prithvi Narayan Shah, lost his eyes in this battle. However, Prithvi Narayan Shah did not give up his hope to conquer the valley kingdoms. For the third time, Prithvi Narayan Shah sent his army under the command of Bansa Raj Pandey who made a sudden attack on Kirtipur in December 1767. This time, the Gorkha troops got victory over Kirtipur. Prithvi Narayan Shah became so furious from his former defeats in the hands of Kirtipuris that he ordered that the nose of the people of Kirtipur over the age of 12 be cut off and the city to be named as 'Naskatipur'.

Conquest of the Valley:

On 26th September 1768, when the people of Kathmandu, along with King Jaya Prakash Malla, were celebrating the Indra Jatra festival, Prithvi Narayan Shah made a sudden attack. The 1000 Gorkha soldiers under the command of their king attacked Kathmandu from three sides-Bhimsenthan, Naradevi and Tundikhel. The troops of Jaya Prakash Malla fought for some time, then they surrendered. Jaya Prakash Malla hid in the Taleju temple and fled to Patan for shelter. Prithvi Narayan Shah declared himself to be the king of Kathmandu and sat on the throne set up in the palace square (Basantapur Durbar Square) for the festival.

After somedays, Patan was also attacked by the Gorkhas. The six Pradhans were ready to surrender before Prithvi Narayan Shah without any bloodshed. Tej Narasimha Malla, the king of Patan, became afraid of the Pradhans as well as of Prithvi Narayan Shah. So, he went to Bhaktapur along with Jaya Prakash Malla. On 6th Oct. 1768, Prithvi Narayan Shah annexed Patan to his kingdom. After a year, on 12th November 1769, Prithvi Narayan Shah conquest Bhaktapur and occupied it. In this way, Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the valley kingdoms one by one and several other kingdoms out side the valley, and laid the foundation of a Grater Nepal.

After conquering the valley, Prithvi Narayan Shah began to prepare for war against Chaubise Rajya. The Gorkhali troops tried to control Kaski, Rishing, Dhor, Bhirkot, Parbat, etc; but they were unsuccessful. Then Prithvi Narayan Shah turned his attention towards the eastern satates and established the boundary of Nepal up to Kankai in the east, Marshandi and Chepe in the weswt, Rasuwa in the north and Parsa to Jhapa in the south.

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