Sunday, July 11, 2010

Malla Kings

The Mallas came to Nepal from India. They had their kingdoms in India. They were afraid of the growing power of Ajatshtru. So the Lichchhavi, Malla and Shakya kings fled towards the Himalayas. The Mallas founded their states in the hills. When the Lichchhavis became weak in the Kathmandu valley, the Mallas' power grew. It is said that Aridev Malla (or Ari Malla) was the first historical Malla king of the Kathmandu Valley.

Jayasthiti Malla

Jayasthiti Malla ascended the throne of Nepal in 1350 A.D. (1438 B.S.). At that time the condition of the country was very bad. There was political disturbance in the palace. The country was economically weak. There was social disorder. A competent and resolute ruler was necessary. Jayasthiti Malla made reforms. He reorganized the caste system. Each caste had its own occupation, dress and manners. He made temples and placed idols in them. He performed Kotihom. He was a lover of literature. He encouraged Sanskrit and Newari languages. Poems and dramas were written. He brought economic reforms. Land was diveded into four classess according to the production of crops. He introduced measuring units called mana, pathi, pau and dharni. The work of measuring land and house was given to the kshetrakar and Takshakar respectively. He introduced the system of imoposing fines on criminals.

Jayasthiti Mall was a great reformist. He was an expert politician. He brought political stability in the country. There was peace and prosperity in the country. He died in 1452 B.S.

Bhupatindra Malla

King Yaksha Malla's sons divided the Malla Kingdom into three states-Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Raya Malla got Bhaktapur. Bhupatindra Malla was his descendant. His father's name was Jitamitra Malla. He ascended the throne of Bhaktapur in 1753 B.S. He was experienced, clever and brave. He had to fight with Kantipur and Lalitpur. He got victory in those battles.

Bhupatindra Mall was very fond of constructive wark. He built temples, taps, inns and palaces. He built a palace called Pachapanna Jhyale Durbar (palace with fifty-five windows) in Bhaktapur. Its gate and windows are objects of great admiration. In front of the Durbar stands a stone pillar on which there is a brass statue of Bhupatindra Malla with folded hands. THe Durbar is unique in beauty. Another excellent work of Bhupatindra Malla is a five-storeyed temple called Nyatapol. On the steps of the temple there are images of wrestlers, elephants and lions. Inside the temple is set up Siddhilaxmi, the goddesh of Tantras. Tourists do visit this temple and the palace.

He wrote many songs, dramas and religious books. Ushaharan, Jaimini Bharat, Gauri Vivah, Ramayan, Mahabharat etc are his famous works.

Siddhi Narasinha Malla

Siddhi Narasinha Malla was the son of king Hariharsinha Malla. He sat on the throne of Patan in 1675 B.S. Patan had no good relation with Kathmandu. Siddhi Narasinha Malla forced Kathmandu to conclude a treaty with Patan.

Of all the Malla kings of Patan Siddhi Narasinha Malla was the greatest. He was a virtuous, wise and kind hearted man. He built many water spouts, inns, ponds, temples and monasteries. He built the famous Krishna Temple of Patan. It is a masterpiece of art. Important events of the Ramayan and the Mahabharat are carved on the walls of the temple of Taleju Bhawani. HE led a very hard religious life. In summer he sat in the centre of Panchagni (five fires). In winter he used to lie down on a cold stone in the open courtyard of his palace. He introduced religious dances.

During his rule trade developed in Patan. Patan had trade relations with Tibet. He issued his own coins.

He was a learned man. He was fond of art, poem and drama. He abdicated his throne and spent his life in Varanasi. He died in 1765 B.S.

Pratap Malla

Pratap Malla was the king of Kantipur (Kathmandu). His father's name was Lakshmi Narasingha Malla. He was vet ambitious. He imprisoned his father and sat on the throbne in 1698 B.S.

He extended his territory. He fought with Patan and Bhaktapur to anned them to his kingdom but could not succeed.

Pratap Malla was a lover of literature. He was a poet. He wrote Kavindra before his name. Kavindra means the king of poets.

He was fond of building temples. He set up an image of Hanuman beside his palace. Since then, the palace is called 'Hanuman Dhoka'. Besides this, he built a temple of Krishna with the image of Kala Bhairav in front of Hanuman Dhoka and a temple of Guheshwari. He offered a gold umbrella to Pashupatinath. He had great respect for Buddhiusm. He introduced Seto Machchhindranath Jatra.

When his son died, his wife was deeply shocked. So he dug a pond in Kathmandu and put water in it from many holy places. There is a temple in the middle of the pond. This pond is called Rani Pokhari. He installed an image of Narayan in the Rani Pokhari temple. This image is like that of Budhanilkantha. It is said that Budhanilkantha told him in dream not to see him. Since then the kings of Nepal do not visit Budhanilkantha.

The rumour is that Pratap Malla had three hundred queens. He was a lustful king. He ruled for 33 years and then died in 1731 B.S.

3 comments:

Bidur said...

Shakyas were in the western part of Terai and in some Indian parts but Mallas were in the hill area of western Nepal. Sinja was the main point of Malla dynasty. All history sows this but in Kathmandu valley how they came from India? In India there is no any traces of Mallas.
I have no idea where is the gape in our history?

swosti said...

the Mallas of sinjha are the khas mallas.

Anonymous said...

hey Bidur guy... Malla actually came from Indian Subcontinent... their territory used to be near to the Kashi... n i think they had to flee because of the attacks from the Maurya Dynasty...